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Icoterm
Incoterms make international trade easier and help traders in different countries to understand one another.

These standard trade definitions that are most commonly used in international contracts are protected by ICC copyright:

FOB (Free on Board) - The delivery of goods on board the vessel at the named port of origin (loading), at seller's expense. Buyer is responsible for the main carriage/freight, cargo insurance and other costs and risks.

In the export quotation, indicate the port of origin (loading) after the acronym FOB , for example FOB Vancouver and FOB Shanghai.

Under the rules of the INCOTERMS 1990, the term FOB is used for ocean freight only. However, in practice, many importers and exporters still use the term FOB in the air freight.

FAS (Free Alongside Ship) - Goods are placed in the dock shed or at the side of the ship, on the dock or lighter, within reach of its loading equipment so that they can be loaded aboard the ship, at seller's expense. Buyer is responsible for the loading fee, main carriage/freight, cargo insurance, and other costs and risks.

In the export quotation, indicate the port of origin (loading) after the acronym FAS , for example FAS New York and FAS Bremen.

The FAS term is popular in the break-bulk shipments and with the importing countries using their own vessels.

CFR (Cost and Freight) - The delivery of goods to the named port of destination (discharge) at the seller's expense. Buyer is responsible for the cargo insurance and other costs and risks. The term CFR was formerly written as C&F .

Many importers and exporters worldwide still use the term C&F. In the export quotation, indicate the port of destination (discharge) after the acronym example CFR Karachi and CFR Alexandria.



Under the rules of the INCOTERMS 1990, the term Cost and Freight is used for ocean freight only. However, in practice, the term Cost and Freight (C&F) is still commonly used in the air freight.

CIF (Cost Insurance and Freight) - The cargo insurance and delivery of goods to the named port of destination (discharge) at the seller's expense. Buyer is responsible for the import customs clearance and other costs and risks.

In the export quotation, indicate the port of destination (discharge) after the acronym CIF , for example CIF CIF Singapore.

Under the rules of the INCOTERMS 1990, the term CIF is used for ocean freight only. However, in practice, many importers and exporters still use the term CIF in the air freight.



DES (Delivered ex Ship) - The delivery of goods on board the vessel at the named port of destination (discharge), at seller's expense. Buyer assumes the unloading fee, import customs clearance, payment of customs duties and taxes, cargo insurance, and other costs and risks.

In the export quotation, indicate the port of destination (discharge) after the acronym DES , for example DES Helsinki and DES Stockholm.

DEQ (Delivered ex Quay) - The delivery of goods to the quay (the port) at destination at seller's expense. Seller is responsible for the import customs clearance and payment of customs duties and taxes at the buyer's end. Buyer assumes the cargo insurance and other costs and risks.

In the export quotation, indicate the port of destination (discharge) after the acronym example DEQ Libreville and DEQ Maputo.

DAF (Delivered at Frontier) - The delivery of goods to the specified point at the frontier at seller's expense. Buyer is responsible for the import customs clearance, payment of customs duties and taxes, and other costs and risks.

In the export quotation, indicate the point at frontier (discharge) after the acronym example DAF Buffalo and DAF Welland.

CPT (Carriage Paid to) - The delivery of goods to the named place of destination (discharge) at seller's expense. Buyer assumes the cargo insurance, import customs clearance, payment of customs duties and taxes, and other costs and risks.

In the export quotation, indicate the place of destination (discharge) after the acronym example CPT Los Angeles and CPT Osaka.

CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid to) - The delivery of goods and the cargo insurance to the named place of destination (discharge) at seller's expense. Buyer assumes the import customs clearance, payment of customs duties and taxes, and other costs and risks.

In the export quotation, indicate the place of destination (discharge) after the acronym CIP , for example CIP Paris and CIP Athens.

DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid) - The delivery of goods and the cargo insurance to the final point at destination, which is often the project site or buyer's premises, at seller's expense. Buyer assumes the import customs clearance and payment of customs duties and taxes. The seller may opt not to insure the goods at his/her own risks.

In the export quotation, indicate the point of destination (discharge) after the acronym DDU , for example DDU La Paz and DDU Ndjamena.

DDP (Delivered Duty Paid) - The seller is responsible for most of the expenses, which include the cargo insurance, import customs clearance, and payment of customs duties and taxes at the buyer's end, and the delivery of goods to the final point at destination, which is often the project site or buyer's premises. The seller may opt not to insure the goods at his/her own risks.

In the export quotation, indicate the point of destination.

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